Julia Belluz: This is why you shouldn’t believe that exciting new medical study

Below are extracts of an opinion piece by Julia Belluz, Senior health correspondent and evidence enthusiast
Read the full text online here: http://www.vox.com/2015/3/23/8264355/research-study-hype

“There’s a big, big, difference between how the media think about news and how scientists think about news,” Naomi Oreskes, a Harvard professor of the history of science, recently told me in an interview. “For you, what makes it news is that it’s new — and that creates a bias in the media to look for brand new results. My view would be that brand new results would be the most likely to be wrong.”

It’s a fact that all studies are biased and flawed in their own unique ways. The truth usually lies somewhere in a flurry of research on the same question. This means real insights don’t come by way of miraculous, one-off findings or divinely ordained eureka moments; they happen after a long, plodding process of vetting and repeating tests, and peer-to-peer discussion. The aim is to make sure findings are accurate and not the result of a quirk in one experiment or the biased crusade of a lone researcher…

We don’t wait for scientific consensus; we report a little too early, and we lead patients and policymakers down wasteful, harmful, or redundant paths that end in dashed hope and failed medicine…

More often than not, single studies contradict one another — such as the research on foods that cause or prevent cancer. The truth can be found somewhere in the totality of the research, but we report on every study in isolation underneath flip-flopping headlines. (Red wine will add years to your life one week, and kill you quicker the next.)…

I often wonder whether there is any value in reporting very early research. Journals now publish their findings, and the public seizes on them, but this wasn’t always the case: journals were meant for peer-to-peer discussion, not mass consumption.

For my part, I’ve tried to report new studies in context, and use systematic reviews — meta-analyses of all the best studies on clinical questions — wherever possible… I try to proceed cautiously, to remind myself that most of what I’m seeing today is hopelessly flawed, that there’s value in looking back.

Best wishes, Neil

Let’s build a future where people are no longer dying for lack of healthcare knowledge – Join HIFA: www.hifa.org


The Lancet: Quality of maternal health care

‘The Lancet’s Maternal Health Series paints a sobering picture of the state of maternal health today…’ says a Comment in The Lancet by Lynn Freedman (Averting Maternal Death and Disability Program, Columbia University, USA).

‘Seemingly, what counts is that facility-based delivery has increased, sometimes dramatically. [But what] do women experience when they arrive at facilities ready to give birth?’

‘Suellen Miller and colleagues identify 51 high-quality global and national clinical practice guidelines issued since 2010 for routine maternity care in facilities. Focusing on middle-income countries to determine what actually transpires, they document pervasive, health-threatening deviations from those guidelines, characterised by too little, too late (insufficient appropriate care) and too much, too soon (excessive medicalisation).’

Miller et al point out that ‘On the continuum of maternal health care, two extreme situations exist: too little, too late (TLTL) and too much, too soon (TMTS) [eg excessive use of episiotomy and caesarean section]’. While the former and latter are often perceived as problems of LMICs and high-income countries, respectively, these two extremes often co-exist within the same country [and even, I would suggest, within the same health facility and at different times in the care of the same patient].

The paper highlights (inter alia) that ‘women value not only appropriate clinical interventions, but relevant, timely information and support so they can maintain dignity and control’ and that care should include:

‘- Provide information about normal course of pregnancy, including breastfeeding if possible, by written material…
– Provide information about consumption of well cooked meat, drinking water and food preparation hygiene, washing hands after gardening and handling of animals (cats), to prevent toxoplasma infection and other infectious diseases…
– Treat every woman with respect, provide her with all information about what she might expect, ask her about her expectations, and involve her in the decisions about her care…
– At time of discharge from health facility, provide information about danger signs for the mother and baby, and counsel women on adequate nutrition, hygiene, handwashing, and safe sex…’

Both papers are freely available (after free registration):

Citation 1: Lynn P. Implementation and aspiration gaps: whose view counts? Thye Lancet Volume 388, No. 10056, p2068–2069, 29 October 2016  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31530-6

Citation 2: Miller, S, Abalos, E, Chamillard, M et al. Beyond too little, too late and too much, too soon: a pathway towards evidence-based, respectful maternity care worldwide. Lancet. 2016; (published online Sept 15.) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31472-6.

Best wishes, Neil

Let’s build a future where people are no longer dying for lack of healthcare knowledge – Join HIFA: www.hifa.org

Medical Aid Films – New film about a unique piece of kit to prevent bleeding after birth

Postpartum haemorrhage (severe bleeding after childbirth, or PPH) is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries.  More than 30 percent of maternal deaths worldwide are attributable to PPH, accounting for approximately 130,000 deaths and 2.6 million disabled women every year.

Medical Aid Films, in partnership with the Division of Global Health and Human Rights at Massachusetts General Hospital, has produced a new film about how to stop bleeding from the uterus after birth using an award-winning, minimally invasive, and highly effective treatment, the Every Second Matters for Mothers and Babies- Uterine Balloon Tamponade (ESM-UBT).

Watch or download the film for free: How to use the uterine balloon tamponade http://www.medicalaidfilms.org/film/uterine-balloon-tamponade/

The ESM-UBT – a simple kit assembled from components readily available in developing countries – has been shown to rapidly halt blood loss in women suffering from uncontrolled PPH.  Introduced in eight countries including South Sudan, Kenya and Sierra Leone, it has resulted in a 96% survival rate among critically ill women.  As an ultra-low cost treatment (each kit costing less than $5), this provides a truly cost-effective way to save lives.

Your feedback is important to us.  If you use these films, please take five minutes to complete this short survey [https://www.tfaforms.com/438280?tfa_76=%20a0R58000002p8of&tfa_208=7015800000016zl], and films like these are dependent on your donations so please do support our work http://www.medicalaidfilms.org/give/

Many thanks,

Will Sanderson | Fundraising & Communications Coordinator | Medical Aid Films
16 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London, WC2A 3ED, UK

HIFA profile: Will Sanderson is Fundraising & Communications Coordinator at Medical Aid Films, London, UK. www.medicalaidflms.org  will AT medicalaidfilms.org

New High-Impact Practice Brief: Community Group Engagement – Changing Norms to Improve Sexual and Reproductive Healt

What is a promising high-impact practice in family planning for social and behavior change?

Engage and mobilize communities in group dialogue and action to promote healthy sexual relationships.

This brief describes the evidence on and experience with community group engagement (CGE) interventions that aim to foster healthy sexual and reproductive health (SRH) behaviors. The distinguishing characteristic of CGE interventions from other social and behavior change (SBC) interventions is that they work with and through community groups to influence individual behaviors and/or social norms rather than shifting behavior by targeting individuals alone. Specifically, community support can shift individual behaviors, including contraceptive behaviors, either by changing norms or individual knowledge and attitudes.

Download the brief here: https://www.fphighimpactpractices.org/resources/community-engagement

HIFA profile: Debra Dickson is POPLINE Manager at the Center for Communication Programs, United States. Email address: ddickson AT jhuccp.org

Call for papers: The Role of Digital Health to Support the Achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

International Journal of Medical Informatics (IJMI)

Guest Editor: David Novillo-Ortiz, Ph.D., eHealth Coordinator, Pan American Health Organization (Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization)

Guest Co-editor: Francesc Saigí-Rubió, Ph.D., Telemedicine Program Director, Department of Health Science, Open University of Catalonia

More information: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/international-journal-of-medical-informatics/call-for-papers/call-for-papers-the-role-of-digital-health


According to the World Health Organization (WHO), available data show that, in spite of the major progress during the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, major challenges remain in terms of reducing maternal and child mortality, improving nutrition, and achieving further progress in the battle against infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, neglected tropical diseases, and hepatitis. The situation analysis also provides evidence of the importance of addressing non-communicable diseases and their risk factors, such as tobacco use, mental health problems, road traffic injuries, and environmental health issues. Data on water and sanitation and air quality show that much more needs to be done to reduce risks to health. Weak health systems are a major obstacle in many countries, resulting in major deficiencies in universal health coverage for even the most basic health services and in inadequate preparedness for health emergencies. All these challenges are included under the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) #3: “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”.

On the other hand, the spread and uptake of information and communications technologies (ICT) have the potential to level the playing field, by reducing some of these challenges and enabling information-sharing that will assist in equalizing these differences. Many ICT systems and devices, initially expensive and of limited dissemination, have become affordable and are widely used across many levels of society. Digital health technologies will play a significant role in achieving the SDGs.

Main theme:

We are soliciting manuscripts for inclusion in a special issue of Health Informatics titled, “The Role of Digital Health to Support the Achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).” We welcome conceptual or empirical manuscripts with a local, national or international focus on the topic of digital health technologies and the Sustainable Development Goal #3.

We are particularly interested in manuscripts that employ interdisciplinary, intersectional, and/or innovative approaches to the conceptualization and measurement of the use of digital health in the achievement of the SDG #3. It is envisioned that the collection of articles included in this special issue will provide robust support for future directions in the digital health research, advocacy, and policy related to the impact of the SDGs.

The special issue of the International Journal of Medical Informatics will provide a platform for countries to make an analysis of what can be done in the area of digital health since the approval of the SDGs.

Manuscript submission process:

Review will take place in two stages. First, we ask for extended abstracts of 900-1000 words, due December 19, 2016, that provide enough information about the conceptualization and measurement of digital health technologies and SDG #3 for review. We strongly encourage authors to mention: (1) the innovation in their approach to the study of digital health technologies and SDG #3; and (2) how this work will set the stage for future research, advocacy, and/or policy in this area. Authors whose abstracts fall within the scope of the special issue will be invited to submit a full manuscript, due March 31, 2017. Acceptance of abstract does not ensure manuscript acceptance, as all manuscripts will be subject to full editorial board and peer review.

Internal Timeline of activities:
·         Submit abstract: December 19, 2016
·         Internal review abstracts for scope: January 16th
·         Submit full manuscript: March 31, 2017

About International Journal of Medical Informatics – Journal Metrics:

Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): 2.068
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 1.405
Impact Factor: 2.363
5-Year Impact Factor: 2.927

David Novillo Ortiz, MLIS, PhD

Advisor, Digital Health & Knowledge Management
Regional focal point for the WHO eHealth Program

Knowledge Management, Bioethics and Research Department

Pan American Health Organization

Tel. +1 202 974-3060 (Land line)
Tel. +1 202 812 4726 (Mobile line)
E-mail: novillod@paho.org

HIFA profile: David Novillo-Ortiz is an Advisor, Digital Health & Knowledge Management, and Regional focal point for the WHO eHealth Program with the Pan American Health Organization, USA. Email address: novillod AT paho.org

Launch of Medical Wikipedia in 9th language – Odia (India)

We have just launched the 9th language version of our offline medical apps. This version is in Odia a language in Eastern India spoken by around 40 million people. You can download it from Google play here https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.kiwix.kiwixcustomwikimedor

Launching this app was more complicated than most as the Google play store does not support the Odia language as an option. We had to thus label it as being in English even though it is not. Many of the articles within this collection are additionally the only content avaliable online in this language.

Many thanks to Dr. Subas Chandra Rout who single handedly translated nearly 500 articles to make this collection a possibility.


HIFA profile: James Heilman is a Wikipedian

WHO: Planning and implementation of palliative care services: a guide for programme managers

Planning and implementation of palliative care services: a guide for programme managers

Below are some extracts relating to information needs:

‘Patients and/or their caregivers also have information and communication needs, and often they will need help with the organization of care. It is important to determine the patient’s values and priorities as a prerequisite to formulating the best plan of care. Advance directives such as a living will or power of attorney may be useful instruments. However, in some situations, patients prefer that one or more family members receive medical information and make decisions about their care for them.’

‘The patient or surrogate(s) should be informed about available treatment options. Comprehensive information on the illness, the expected disease trajectory and treatment options should be delivered in an empathic way. This will reduce unknowns and hence reduce anxieties. The unknown may induce more anxiety than the reality.’

‘The media need to be involved in disseminating reliable information of educational value, while avoiding sensationalism.’

The guide refers to the World Health Assembly resolution WHA67.19 (2014):
“Strengthening of palliative care as a component of comprehensive care throughout the life course”

‘[…] 1. URGES Member States:5
1. to develop, strengthen and implement, where appropriate, palliative care policies to support the comprehensive strengthening of health systems to integrate evidence-based, cost-effective and equitable palliative care services in the continuum of care, across all levels, with emphasis on primary care, community and home-based care, and universal coverage schemes;
2. to ensure adequate domestic funding and allocation of human resources, as appropriate, for palliative care initiatives, including development and implementation of palliative care policies, education and training, and quality improvement initiatives, and supporting the availability and appropriate use of essential medicines, including controlled medicines for symptom management…’

Best wishes, Neil

Let’s build a future where people are no longer dying for lack of healthcare knowledge – Join HIFA: www.hifa.org

Health is Primary

Health is Primary is a communications campaign to advocate for the values of family medicine, demonstrate the benefits of primary care, and engage patients in our health care system. Our aim is to build a primary care system that reflects the values of family medicine, puts patients at the center of their care, and improves the health of all Americans. Family Medicine for America’s Health launched the campaign to help strengthen the primary care infrastructure and make America healthier…..moremore

The United States and Cuba — Turning Enemies into Partners for Health

In June 2016, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and Cuba’s Ministry of Public Health signed an umbrella accord that promises to make health a cornerstone of the new era of cooperation between the two countries. The memorandum of understanding (MOU), signed by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Minister Roberto Morales Ojeda, is the latest expression of goodwill since the December 2014 rapprochement that renewed diplomatic relations and reopened embassies in Washington and Havana. According to the HHS announcement, the MOU “establishes coordination across a broad spectrum of public health issues, including global health security, communicable and non-communicable diseases, research and development, and information technology.”1 Finally the door has been opened for bilateral collaboration aimed at preventing and controlling diseases that affect people in both countries — including infectious threats such as Zika as well as cancer and other chronic conditions that are the main causes of death in the United States and Cuba…..more

Free EdX Course: eHealth – Opportunities and Challenges

An introduction to the eHealth field featuring practical examples.

About this course: KIeHealthX will introduce students to the field of eHealth and its opportunities and challenges. During the course you will get to know the different concepts that are used in the field and learn how it developed historically. This basic knowledge will help you to understand the opportunities and challenges of the field. You will meet different stakeholders from various countries and get to know their views on the opportunities and challenges of eHealth. We will introduce you to eHealth strategies and frameworks for developing and analyzing them. You will get to know methods for eHealth service development and discuss basic requirements that are necessary to achieve sustainable eHealth applications for both clinical professionals and patients.

You will see examples of eHealth applications in different contexts and for different users. We will discuss questions such as:

  • What is it that is so unique about the health sector?
  • What factors are important – to avoid failures when implementing eHealth?
  • What are usable tools for care professionals?
  • How can patients best organize and use their own health data to improve their condition?

eHealth is a global issue but successful eHealth implementation is very dependent on the local context. At the end of the course you will have a basic understanding what eHealth is and how to set up eHealth strategies and discuss them in your specific context. You will also get to know success factors and pitfalls for the development of sustainable eHealth services and their implementation.

This course is offered in collaboration with EIT Health.

See moreabout eHealth – Opportunities and Challenges

What you’ll learn

  • To define basic eHealth concepts and describe the development of the field
  • What the success factors and barriers are for eHealth implementation
  • To analyze eHealth strategies and adapt them in relation to your specific context

Video: Mini-Laparotomy for Tubal Ligation under Local Anesthesia

We are happy to share the link to a new English / French animated resource for training:  Mini-Laparotomy for Tubal Ligation under Local Anesthesia (MLLA)

NEW FROM MSCP: Animated training video for Mini-Laparotomy for Tubal Ligation under Local Anesthesia (MLLA)

NOUVEL OUTIL DE MCSP: Animation de formation de La Mini-Laparotomie Sous Anesthésie Locale pour la Ligature des Trompes (version francaise ci-dessous)

USAID’s flagship Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP) is excited to introduce our latest product – a collaboration with a JHU Graduate student in medical illustration, Erica Chin. The Family Planning team has developed an animated video which demonstrates the clinical skills for Mini-Laparotomy for Tubal Ligation under Local Anesthesia (MLLA).

This nine-minute video was developed as a learning resource for training health care workers in the MLLA procedure. It has been split up into nine chapters showing the steps of the process: preparation, use of the uterine elevator, administering local anesthesia, creating the mini-laparotomy, locating the fallopian tubes, grasping the fallopian tubes, tubal occlusion, closure of the mini-laparotomy, and post-operative care and instructions. Previously-trained providers may also use this video to refresh themselves before conducting the operation.

Find the video here – https://youtu.be/w-h9eFyNyNM

Help us spread the word to others by sharing this email with your networks and sending out a message on social media.

Here are sample social media messages to help us spread the word about this product and feel free to forward this email to your communications / social media staff.

Learn about Mini-Laparotomy for Tubal Ligation under Local Anesthesia (MLLA). See MCSP’s new training video here: https://youtu.be/w-h9eFyNyNM.

Please contact me if you have any additional questions. Apologies for any cross-posting.


L’équipe de planification familiale du Programme USAID pour la survie de la mère et de l’enfant ( (MCSP) a conçu un nouvel outil de formation avec une étudiante diplômée en Illustration Médicale à l’Université Johns Hopkins, Erica Chin. Cette animation démontre la technique chirurgicale pour la mini-laparotomie sous anesthésie locale pour la ligature des trompes.

Cette vidéo de neuf minutes a été conçue comme outil de formation pour enseigner la procédure aux prestataires de santé. Elle contient neuf chapitres démontrant les étapes de la procédure: la préparation, utilisation de l’élévateur utérin, l’anesthésie locale, la mini-laparotomie, la localisation des trompes de Fallope, la saisie les trompes de Fallope, l’occlusion des trompes, la fermeture de la mini-laparotomie, et les soins post-opératoires et instructions. Les prestataires de santé formés peuvent aussi utiliser cette vidéo pour se rafraîchir avant d’effectuer l’opération.

Trouvez la vidéo ici- youtu.be/kkD2FYpp7rc

Aidez-nous à diffuser le message en partageant cet e-mail avec vos collègues ou sur les médias sociaux.

S’il vous plaît contactez-moi si vous avez des questions supplémentaires.

Anne Pfitzer

Family Planning Team Leader

Maternal and Child Survival Program

USAID Grantee

1776 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 300

Washington, DC 20036

tel: 202.835.6072


[Forwarded by] HIFA profile: Jean C Sack is a Public Health Informationist at Jhpiego – an affiliate of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.      Jean.sack AT jhpiego.org


Launch of the new WHO Framework on integrated people-centred health services (who.int) website

logo-whoDear colleagues,

It is my pleasure to share with you the new WHO Framework on integrated people-centred health services website (http://www.who.int/servicedeliverysafety/areas/people-centred-care/en/), housed within the Service Delivery and Safety department at WHO headquarters.

 Why are we excited about the launch of this site?

 At the Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly Member States officially adopted the Framework on integrated people-centred health services (IPCHS) and its supporting resolution, formally giving the WHO Secretariat the mandate to work across the organization to support the implementation, national adaptation and operationalization of the Framework. The new website aims to be a steward for the Framework – serving as an important medium for accessing information on the Framework, for sharing technical products and resources, and for communicating key news, events and activities taking place worldwide.

 Three sections to visit:

  1. About the Framework – Development of the Framework, alignment with other WHO strategies, benefits of IPCHS
  2. Implementation of the Framework – Strategies, policy options, interventions, and a “Call for Action on IPCHS” (*expected release date: December 2016)
  3. IntegratedCare4People platform – A global network that invites practitioners and organizations to access and share operational and technical insights on how to transform health services to be more integrated and people-centred

 Contributions welcome!

 Are you or your colleagues transforming, or supporting the transformation of, health services to support the Framework on IPCHS? If so, we invite you to share your practices, reports, tools, and publications, as well as important news and activities on the IntegratedCare4People platform. For further discussion and collaboration on knowledge management and communications activities, please contact Stephanie Ngo ngost@who.int.

 Link to our website

We encourage you to link to our websites and support our dissemination efforts by sharing important and relevant news on your communications channels. (*Please note that the WHO IPCHS website is the official who.int website for the Framework, while the IntegratedCare4People platform is an online community that invites practitioners and organizations to access and share operational and technical insights on how to transform health services to be more integrated and people-centred.)

Thank for your continued support on this important and exciting area of work. We look forward to continuing our collaborations with you in the months ahead.

With warm regards,

  • Dr Hernan Montenegro
  • Coordinator
  • Services Organization and Clinical Interventions Unit
  • Service Delivery and Safety Department
  • World Health Organization
  • Avenue Appia 20
  • CH-1211 Geneva 27 – Switzerland
  • +41 22 791 14 65 (Phone)
  • +41 22 791 41 74 (FAX)
  • montenegroh@who.int

Free tertiary education needs funding from public sources: KPMG


Free tertiary education would not really be free because significant funding would need to come from public sources. However‚ South Africa faced a number of challenges to realise this dream when compared to countries which do not charge any tuition fees‚ or only charged administration fees‚ a report by KPMG on the economic challenges to accessing tertiary education and providing tuition-free education in South Africa has found…..more

Why government loans are the fairest way to fund South Africa’s students

Super-size South Africa: the role of the supermarket

Supermarkets offer consumers a wide rage of processed food options. (Credit: Flickr/ Sean MacEntee)

Does the expansion of supermarkets across the country have anything to do with our expanding waist-lines?Obesity in South Africa has hit epidemic proportions. But while the science is clear about the extent of our expanding waist lines, it is not as easy to quantify the why. Where lies the responsibility of the individual when we grow, learn and age in a “toxic” food environment? Fast food outlets are known villains but a growing body of evidence is questioning the role played by the seemingly innocuous supermarket in creating a super-sized South Africa.   

South African women are one of the most severely obese populations in the world ranking ninth out of 186 countries in 2014, according to a study published in the medical journal the Lancet in April. The nation’s obese women account for 2.7 percent of all the severely obese women on the planet.

And it’s not only adults who are tipping the scales…..more

Exercise could curb junk food cravings linked to lack of sleep, study finds

Grannies walk for fun – and good health

More than 80 grannies from Makuya village, near Niani in Limpopo participated in another fun walk earlier this year.

Every year thousands of senior citizens in the Thohoyandou area come together to participate in the King Toni Mphephu Ramabulana fun walk – a 10km event aimed at promoting exercise. Recently the elderly people met at Ha-Tshisele village in Thohoyandou to walk to the Royal Gardens in Nandoni, Limpopo. The aim of the event was to promote walking as a healthy way to fight age-related diseases like sugar diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity.

“The king should make this walk a weekly event, as some of us really need this kind of exercise. Even though it was not easy for me to walk the entire 10km, I pushed myself up until to the end as I know that at the end I will be the one who will reap the benefits,” said Maria Munyai (71), one the grannies who took part in the walk.

More than 10 000 local residents joined the event, which was mostly attended by older people as children were at school. “It is painful and fun at the same time. If they call us to do this again next week I will definitely participate, as to me it will be a rare exercise,” added Munyai. The famous walk is organised as a form of heritage month celebrations in the Vhembe area…..more

Thuli Madonsela saved the ANC from itself – Mantashe

52ff1a43cdf442b3906123297f25e69cANC secretary-general Gwede Mantashe was gracious as he bade farewell to outgoing Public Protector Thuli Madonsela last night, saying the party had learnt a lot from her.

Speaking at Madonsela’s farewell dinner at Gallagher Estate in Midrand, Mantashe said: “I agree with premier David Makhura when he said you saved us from ourselves. You did and we never acknowledged that. You leave the ANC wiser as you go.”

Mantashe added that “without the ANC, your work would not have been as exciting”. …more

Mkhwebane outlines her priorities

Wits postpones general assembly after talks with protesters fail

be0a0540084c47ccbaa82779af48161aThe University of Witwatersrand has postponed its general assembly because talks with student protesters – which went on till 3.30am this morning – could not reach a consensus.

Scheduled for today, the assembly was to be held at the Library Lawns Braamfontein Campus East, with the theme “The principle of higher education and how the Wits community approaches it”.

This was only the 11th general assembly ever held at the institution since 1959. It was to be chaired by retired deputy judge president Dikgang Moseneke, in his capacity as the university’s chancellor. …more

The pledge that Wits students wouldn’t sign